The risky business of marijuana butane honey oil operations
By: Jason M. Williams
18 June 2018
Fires and explosions occurring at marijuana butane honey oil extraction
(BHO) operations have increased significantly over the past several
years, according to the Office of the Fire Marshal and Emergency
Management (OFMEM) in Ontario.
There are inherent hazards and dangers associated with the extraction
process due to the volatile fuels utilized by the manufactures of the
illicit marijuana concentrate product. The incidents, which are
occurring at illegal drug producing facilities, have caused serious
injuries, property damage and even death to those involved in the
manufacturing process as well as members of the public. It is an issue
all first responders must be prepared to handle, especially as the
legislation governing marijuana is set to change in Canada.
Between 2012 and April 2018, the OFMEM investigated 39 fire/explosion
incidents involving BHO extraction processes in the province.
The BHO method of producing marijuana concentrate allegedly provides a
greater yield than other methods and has become very popular.
Information on how to carry out a BHO extraction can be found readily
online and does not require any specialized equipment — it can all be
purchased at a local hardware store.
A background on marijuana concentrate production
Hash oil is manufactured by solvent extraction of marijuana and/or
hashish. After filtering and evaporating the solvent, a sticky resinous
liquid remains. One pound of marijuana will produce between 1/5 and
1/10 of a pound of hash oil.
(As a side note, hash oils seized in the 1970s had THC contents ranging
from approximately 10-30 per cent. Hash oils seized in the past five
years have had THC concentrations as high as 90 per cent.)
A wide variety of solvents can and have been utilized for the
extraction process including chloroform, petroleum ether, naphtha,
benzene, ethanol and butane.1 Here we will focus on the utilization of
butane as the solvent.
The preferred method to produce marijuana concentrate is to manufacture
BHO, which regularly utilizes a four-step process. The manufacturers of
the BHO will moderate the amount of marijuana plant material (which
includes buds, stems and leaves) by grinding the material into smaller
particulate with a grinder or blender; the smaller particulate is
commonly known as “shake.”
This material is then placed into an extractor tube, which can be made
from PVC piping, glass mason jars, glass piping materials and stainless
steel piping along with extractors. One end of the extractor is
equipped with a receiver that will accommodate a butane canister
dispensary nipple and the other end will be covered with a filter
(coffee filter, cheese cloth). A collection device (bowl or dish) is
placed under the filtering device to collect the product at this stage.
The extractors can vary in size, shape and can be made out of an array
of materials. Commercially available extractors are also available,
such as Close Looped Extraction systems, which often utilize
refrigerant cylinders to store the butane.
The butane is stored in liquid form in the commercially available
cylinders, which are sold predominantly for the purpose of refilling
The process strips the cannabis marijuana of its cannabinoid rich oils
and THC-containing materials by using the butane to break off and
dissolve the trichomes into the solvent, carrying it away from the
plant material where it is further refined by the manufacture of the
The manufacturers of the BHO then attempt to refine or purge the
product of any impurities or butane fuel by soaking the collection
dish/bowl with a solution of warm water in a double boiler system or
crock pot(s). Another common method is the use of a vacuum pump
attached to a vacuum chamber and/or oven.
Some of the manufacturers of the marijuana concentrate will attempt to
further refine the BHO product into “shatter,” which continues with the
attempts to purge the product of any impurities and is known as
“winterizing” or “de-waxing.” These steps of the process remove the
marijuana plant wax from the hash oil.
The manufacturer places the BHO product into a container (such as a
mason jar) and pours acetone, toluene, grain alcohol or 99 per
cent-pure isopropyl alcohol into the container with the product, which
is then often placed into a freezer.
The fuels utilized in the BHO operation (butane, isopropyl alcohol,
etc.) have explosive properties. The intentional introduction of the
fuels into a compartment only requires the diffused fuel/air mixture
within the explosive range and a competent ignition source to
potentially cause an explosion.
The factors affecting the dynamics of the explosion incident and
pressures created by the diffused fuel vapour explosion are the
fuel-air ratio, turbulence effect, volume of the confining space,
location and magnitude of the ignition source, venting and strength of
Explosions occurring at BHO manufacturing facilities have completely
destroyed single-family dwellings, business and industrial facilities,
along with causing serious life-threatening injuries and death to
individuals in or near the site.
BHO fire and explosion incidents are becoming a more regular occurrence
in Ontario. These explosion investigations are being under taken by the
OFMEM along with local fire and police services.
Insuring the proper legal authority to conduct such an investigation is
required by all of the agencies involved. Often the scene results in
parallel investigations; a narcotics investigation and a fire/explosion
investigation. Under these circumstances both a Control Drug and
Substances Act search warrant and an s. 487 Criminal Code search
warrant should be sought, as any authority under the Fire Protection
and Prevention Act would not be applicable in this instance.
Law enforcement response
In February of 2013 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
posted an alert in its emergency services bulletin titled “Hash Oil
Explosions Increasing across U.S.”
The alert was in relation to an increasing number of explosion
incidents occurring where “a process using butane to extract and
concentrate compounds from marijuana,” was being utilized. These
destructive incidents that FEMA identified could even be mistaken for
pipe bomb or meth lab explosions.
In 2012, the state of Colorado de-criminalized possession of marijuana
for medical purposes, regulating it like alcohol. Since the
de-criminalization of marijuana there have been a reported 55
explosions in the state, all associated with the illegal production of
United States law enforcement agencies have identified a rise in the
number of BHO explosion incidents in states that have de-criminalized
possession of marijuana for medical purposes, especially on the west
coast of the country. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and
local law enforcement agencies throughout the United States have
implemented task forces to deal with the rising concern in relation to
the illegal operation of marijuana concentrate extraction laboratories.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, municipal and provincial police
agencies in Ontario have all indicated that BHO operations have been
identified in numerous areas. In other words, these types of explosions
won’t be going away any time soon.
In Ontario, individuals who are prosecuted in relation to an explosion
at a BHO manufacturing laboratory are regularly charged under Section
433 of the Criminal Code of Canada which states, “Every person who
intentionally or recklessly causes damage by fire or explosion to
property that is not wholly owned by that person is guilty of an
Sections 434.1 and 436.(1) also apply and may be laid in relation to a fire/explosion related to a BHO operation.
It is clear that the intentional introduction of butane into a
confining vessel or compartment for the purposes of the illicit
manufacturing of BHO is an extremely hazardous and dangerous process.
With the upcoming legalization of marijuana in Canada, the likelihood
of an increase in BHO laboratories and subsequent explosion incidents
in Ontario can be expected, as has occurred in many areas of the United
States. This put the manufacturers, members of the public and first
responders all at an inherent risk of an explosion and/or fire
top contents chapter